Bayard Rustin debates Malcolm X: Integration or Separation
Treasures from the Vault: 1962 recording of Malcolm X debating Bayard Rustin on Integration versus Separation.
Bayard Rustin is perhaps one of the most understated leaders of the Civil Rights Movement. He helped with the formation of the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) in 1942, which was conceived as a pacifist organization based on the writings of Henry David Thoreau, and modeled after Mahatma Ghandi’s non-violent resistance against British rule in India. Bayard Rustin would devote his life to the non violent pursuit of equal rights for all.
Malcolm X was one of the leaders of the Nation of Islam in the 1960s.
In December 1953, a little more than a year after he was paroled from prison, Malcolm was named the minister at the NOI's Boston mosque, Temple No. 11. The following year he also became the minister at Temple No. 12 (Philadelphia) and Temple No. 7 (New York).
Beginning in the 1960s, Malcolm was invited to participate in numerous debates, including forums on radio stations (Los Angeles, New York, Washington), television programs ("Open Mind," "The Mike Wallace News Program") and universities (Harvard Law School, Howard University, Columbia University).
In 1963, the New York Times reported that Malcolm X was the second most sought after speaker in the United States.
On June 29, 1963 Malcolm lead the Unity Rally in Harlem. It was one of the nations largest civil rights events.