Lessons from Lost Valley
Sociocracy: A Permaculture Approach to Community Evolution
By Melanie Rios
(Published in the Winter 2011 issue of Communities magazine – Issue #153.)
Partial diagram of sociocratic organizational structure at Lost Valley Center. The water circle was a temporary circle that has since disbanded. The arrows stand for people who are representatives of one circle to the other circle.
In 2008 Lost Valley took decision-making power away from its consensus-based intentional community and transformed into a hierarchical business. The organization (a 501(c)3 nonprofit operating an 87-acre permaculture education and conference center outside Dexter, Oregon) hoped to become more economically solvent through this change, but it continued to struggle financially.
Two years later, in dire economic straits, we began integrating top-down and flat-hierarchical governance systems by adopting a system called sociocracy, which I learned about at a workshop by John Schinnerer at the Northwest Permaculture Convergence. Here is how our conversion to a sociocratic governance system at Lost Valley can be viewed as a form of social permaculture that has helped our 21-year-old community thrive both socially and economically.
Observe First, then Interpret and Interact
The first principle of permaculture is observation. In the visible world, for example, we are advised to observe flows of water and other characteristics of a newly acquired property for a full year before taking steps to change what is there. I have been observing Lost Valley for a decade, first as a visitor and a student, then as a guest permaculture teacher, and now in the role of Executive Director. I see the succession of governance systems at Lost Valley as a natural progression from what the spiral dynamics folk call the green vmeme to the yellow vmeme.
The Lost Valley that I first entered 10 years ago came straight out of the green vmeme. The community valued cooperation over competition, process over product, equality in decision-making, and expressions of affection more than economic profit. There were many wonderful aspects to this way of being. Hugs and empathy were plentiful, and folks knew how to talk about and support each other having feelings. People felt included and empowered to participate in making decisions that affected them. Lost Valley folk lived simply and frugally while helping our planet and living in close connection with each other.
But there were shadow sides to this way of being. Long meetings with few decisions eventually discouraged members with initiative from pursuing their dreams at Lost Valley. The whole group often had difficulty achieving consensus on a given proposal, and so individuals who wanted to accomplish things in the world moved away. Others left because decisions were mediocre; someone who knew nothing about fire safety would have as much power to make a decision on that topic as someone who was an expert. These departures of high-powered, competent members contributed to economic stagnation. The community was barely scraping by, with mounting deferred maintenance on buildings and a high turnover of community members.
About three years ago, Lost Valley made a transition intended to call in the yellow vmeme values of effectiveness, ease, and excellence. A few folks stood up at a meeting and said they were all leaving the community if the consensus-based governance structure weren’t changed to give more power to those who were more competent and responsibly engaged in supporting the business side of the community. After discussion, the community agreed to the changes they proposed, and a newly invigorated nonprofit board of directors assumed leadership of the community, creating a hierarchical structure of governance. The board hired an executive director and managers to accomplish the work of Lost Valley’s nonprofit organization, including hosting permaculture educational programs and conferences.
I enjoyed many of the changes that came out of this transition. Staff meetings were less likely to be derailed by a long detour into exploring someone’s feelings. The organization established systems of accountability and defined tasks and roles, while staff management learned how to write and follow budgets. These changes set the stage for moving the community forward.
But there were shadow sides to this transition, taking the community on a detour back to the orange vmeme, which values hierarchical decision-making, product over process, and profit over heart-centered goals. Volunteers and staff were afraid of speaking truthfully to those above them in the hierarchy for fear of being asked to leave. Managers made autonomous decisions without the input or knowledge of those who were affected by these decisions, and gossip and resentments ran rampant. Community morale was low, which negatively affected the experience of our students in addition to those who lived here. In September 2010 word arrived from the chairman of the board that the community would run out of funds in December, and that unlike other similar challenging moments in previous years, no one had energy or ideas for borrowing funds to make it through the winter.
Upon hearing this news, I thought of the many people who have enjoyed and contributed to Lost Valley’s land and mission, and the many more who would like to do so. I felt sad to think that our planet’s ecological movement might lose the zoning of this land, which allows us to live collectively, to host educational programs and conferences, and even to build more homes in an ecovillage cluster rather than on a grid. Saving Lost Valley as a nonprofit dedicated to environmental education felt like a project that was both doable and sufficiently challenging to be of interest. So I stepped up to invest funds and other forms of energy to help keep Lost Valley alive, and I invited others to join me in this project. Our challenge was to figure out what we could do to help Lost Valley finally make the transition to the yellow vmeme, a place of both joy and effectiveness.
Small and Slow Solutions
The permaculture principle “use small and slow solutions” helped us at this stage. Applied to our homesteads, for example, this principle suggests that we make changes to our land starting at our doorstep, and only slowly implement more sustainable elements of our design as time and funds allow. I saw that Lost Valley was a microcosm containing the world’s challenges, and that I may or may not be able to help solve these problems. Wisdom from an Eckert Tolle book steadied me for the journey ahead: “Whatever is born of stillness, the outcome will be good.” It wouldn’t do any good to give up my meditation practice and run around exuding anxiety about the dire straits we were in. I could move slowly, one step at a time, practicing non-attachment to outcome, finding satisfaction in simply doing my best.
Out of this awareness, a “Positive Action Team” was born at Lost Valley. The seven members of this team were folks I felt closest to at the time, and we began by each choosing one small action to implement unilaterally at Lost Valley. One person decided to tell folks she met during the course of her day what she appreciated about them. Another chose to clean up messes he didn’t make. Another decided to build beautiful altars out of natural objects. These individual small actions had a rapid effect on morale at Lost Valley. We felt more connected and hopeful within the first week of beginning this experiment, and within two weeks it appeared that others who weren’t yet part of us were feeling better as well.
Our next step was to study and practice sociocracy, a governance system based on a pattern of inter-linked decision-making circles that each contains a small number of people. Meeting together in small groups is more engaging than larger ones because there is more space for each participant to actively participate in the conversational flow. And small groups of five to 10 members are more effective than larger ones at making good decisions quickly.
The Positive Action Team became the first sociocratic circle at Lost Valley, and it would later give birth to other circles above and below it in the governance hierarchy before finally disbanding. Rather than have circles expand to include lots of new members, a new sociocratic circle arises when an existing circle elects a representative to start another circle with a mission to focus on a defined aspect of the organization. That representative becomes the voice of the original group to the new group, and selects people to serve on the new group. The new group then elects a representative to the original group. The circles thus become “double-linked,” as shown in the diagram of Lost Valley’s current governance structure.
For example, Colin, our representative from the stewardship circle to the community circle, shares decisions that the stewardship circle has made that impact the community. Justin, elected to represent the community circle on the stewardship circle, keeps the stewardship circle informed about what’s happening in the community, and advocates on the community’s behalf. This allows information to flow both ways in the hierarchy of circles, with folks in the lower circles sending information about proposals and decisions to the circles above, and vice versa.
Apply Self-Regulation and Accept Feedback
These double-linked circles facilitate the feedback referred to in the permaculture principle “apply self-regulation and accept feedback.” An example of this principle in the visible world is placing electric meters at the entrance to one’s house, rather than behind some bushes in an obscure corner outside the house. That way residents can see how much power is being used as they leave home, and respond to this feedback by regulating how many appliances they leave plugged in.
A sociocratic example of this flow of feedback was when someone informed the community circle that some people were getting ill, and they thought it might be due to problems with our well water. The community circle formed a temporary circle called the “water circle,” tasked with researching the issue and coming up with a proposed solution. The water circle reported back their suggested course of action to the community circle, who liked it enough to refer it up to the stewardship circle, who liked it enough to refer it up to the Board of Directors. The folks in the water circle presented their ideas in each of these circles, and in the space of just a few weeks, the Board approved their suggestions for funding.
The “apply self-regulation and accept feedback” principle benefits from transparency, one of sociocracy’s core values. Sociocratic governance calls for open, honest communication about everything from financial books to feelings people hold about each other. With this value in mind, I met with the chairman of the board when the Positive Action Team was just starting up to request access to economic information about Lost Valley so that we could make informed backup plans in case Lost Valley ran out of funds.
Sociocracy also encourages groups to apply self-regulation and accept feedback by requiring three steps of those charged with accomplishing tasks: planning, implementation, and evaluation. Before electing someone to do something, the circle clearly defines the nature of the task, establishes a timetable, and creates a plan for evaluating the results. Sociocratic circles consist of folks with expertise and/or strong stakes in the task at hand, and they receive creative latitude to accomplish their task as they deem best without being micromanaged by the circle above them in the hierarchy. The higher circle can intervene, however, if the circle charged with a task goes sufficiently off track or doesn’t get the job done on schedule. When tasks or meetings are finished, we take time to evaluate both the process and product so that the group can learn to do things better in the future.
Sociocratic elections encourage people to give positive feedback to each other by asking members of circles to talk openly about why they want to elect someone for a task. The Positive Action Team employed a sociocratic election to create a financial circle charged with learning about the economic situation at Lost Valley. To elect the Positive Action Team’s representative to this financial circle, we passed around slips of paper upon which each person wrote their name and the name of the person they wanted to head up this new circle. Then a facilitator asked each person why they nominated the person they chose. During a second go-round, people were allowed to change their nominations based on the reasons they had heard from others. The facilitator then suggested someone to head up the circle based not strictly on the number of nominations, but rather on the strength of the reasons, and asked each person whether they had any “reasoned and paramount objections” to this suggested person. In other words, a person would have to have a good and strong reason to block someone’s election, not simply that he or she would prefer someone else. Once someone is elected, he or she is asked if they want to accept the job.
This sociocratic nominating method resembles the consensus decision-making process, but the wording “Do you have any reasoned or paramount objections?” encourages even untrained people to use a block well. If someone does have an objection, or if the person who is elected doesn’t want to serve, then the facilitator suggests someone else. We’ve found in practice that objections have been rare and fairly easy to respond to, and that almost everyone who is asked to serve chooses to do so. The mood of a group after elections is often one of connection and trust because we’ve taken time to tell each other why we love and respect each other. The person who is charged with creating a new circle and executing the assigned tasks knows he or she is supported by the group, and can act with well-earned authority. In this way, sociocracy is both participatory, in that each person in a circle has an equal voice in selecting someone to do the work, and effective, in that those who are selected to do the work are given the power to act.
Creatively Use and Respond to Change
This permaculture principle keeps us light on our feet, looking for the good in even challenging situations. The local and organic food movements, for example, are creative responses to the toxicity and increasing expense of using petroleum products for growing food. Sociocracy is also known by another name, dynamic governance, because it is especially useful in times of rapid change. In the year since we formed our first sociocratic circle at Lost Valley, much has improved here in our morale, our facilities, and our quality of life. From a community that had dwindled to just a handful of folks over the winter, we now have 40 people living here and a couple of new businesses to provide employment for them. We’ve renovated many buildings, cleaned and de-cluttered everywhere else, and upgraded our water systems. Several households plan to build their own homes on the land, so that we will no longer be a community exclusively of renters. Our cash flow has been positive since the beginning of this year, even through the winter when Lost Valley has typically lost money. I feel grateful for the sociocratic governance methods that have facilitated this joyful and effective progress.
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“This entire week we’ve been in a pretty direct confrontation with evil,” Secretary of State John Kerry
“Direct confrontation with evil”? Is that what we call it? Is that how we are supposed to understand the events in Boston?
When a woman in a village in Waziristan, attending a family wedding, wakes up in the rubble to find her children’s poor ruined bodies strewn around her among the broken flowers, does she think, ‘Good thing they weren’t Americans or this would have been a tragic confrontation with evil…’ And yet he drone strikes continue. The US continues to pour military hardware into Israel which in turn pours it down on the Palestinian people. The number of the dead grows. Palestinians languish in prisons built on their own land.
Around the world the carnage continues; we wreak horror on our own habitat, rendering it uninhabitable – except by the poor who have no choice.
That’s terror. That’s it’s real face.
What we suffer here in ‘The Homeland’ is madness.
And nothing more.
This morning the country woke to learn that
‘The suspects have been widely identified by law enforcement officials as brothers from a Russian region near Chechnya. But an uncle, Ruslan Tsarni, who lives in the Washington suburb of Montgomery Village, said the men had emigrated almost a decade ago and had lived near Boston ever since.
Tamerlan Tsarnaev was killed following a convenience store robbery overnight, during a car chase and gun battle in Watertown in which improvised hand grenades were tossed from a carjacked Mercedes and one police officer was killed; he was 26 and was the one wearing the black baseball cap in the surveillance footage the FBI released Thursday.
Dzhokhar Tsarnaev, 19, the one filmed wearing a white ball cap backwards, escaped and was the focus of a phenomenal manhunt that prompted officials to stop all mass transit systems and order everyone in Boston and several suburbs to stay indoors.’
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It's all there...but we are hypnotized by the bright beads. Our demons are in the twisted connections in between. Our demons are not looking in the windows while we sleep.
They are windows and they are also the sleep.
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Monday, April 15th, marked Patriot's Day (or Patriots' Day) 2013. The holiday commemorates the battles of Lexington and Concord, which were fought near Boston in 1775. Patriot's Day is annually held on the third Monday of April. It should not be confused with Patriot Day, held on September 11 to mark the anniversary of terrorist attacks in the USA in 2001. It especially should not be confused with Patriot Day.. So, putting Humpty Dumpty back together we have Patriots day/ Patriot Day, Tax Day and one of America's pre-eminent sporting events, the Boston Marathon.
With little official information to guide them and no advance warning, , members of Congress strongly suggested on Monday that the deadly Boston Marathon explosions were acts of terrorism and vowed to bring anyone responsible to justice.
Okay, but whence the terrorists?
It looks a lot like a Love Letter from the Sovereign Citizens movement. But since consumers of mainstream media are more familiar with the stereotypical Middle Eastern Arabic bad guy with the hot-wired vest, that is exactly what is being sold to a cowed and highly suggestible public.
Why the plain hell did they have to call the things “I.E.D.”s? Most people’s first thought upon hearing those three little letters, is ‘Yikes! Iraqis!’
Before you think too hard and too long about the answer to that one, take a look at this:
A 36-year-old software engineer who shot and killed a California Highway Patrol (CHP) officer last fall was bipolar and held antigovernment “sovereign citizen” views, an investigation by the Contra Costa County Sheriff’s Office has concluded.
Christopher Lacy’s ideological ties to the sovereign citizen movement, whose adherents generally believe they are immune to federal tax and many criminal laws, were documented with more than 100 interviews and search warrants. But the seven-month investigation failed to determine why he shot CHP Trooper Kenyon Youngstrom on September 4th.
The trooper was fatally shot at close range moments after stopping Lacy’s vehicle, which had an “obstructed license plate” as it traveled on busy Interstate 680 near Alamo, Calif., the sheriff’s office said in a just-released summary statement. That was only the latest murder of a law enforcement official during a traffic stop by a sovereign citizen, most of whom believe the government has no right to regulate their driving. On May 20, 2010, two West Memphis, Ark., police officers were slain by a father-son team of sovereigns during a routine traffic stop.
The FBI has publicly classified the sovereign citizens movement as “domestic terrorist” in nature.
As part of their investigation into the police shooting, Contra Costa County sheriff’s detectives searched Lacy’s trailer in Corning, Calif., about 200 miles from the shooting, where they seized six computers containing encrypted files.
“Investigators found a large amount of literature on Libertarianism and the sovereign citizen movement,” the sheriff’s office summary statement said. Lacy, it added, “had strong views” about gun rights and didn’t “agree with the role of government.” “Lacy downloaded literature on sovereign citizen [beliefs],” Detective Sgt. Jose Beltran of the sheriff’s homicide squad said in the statement. “Although he never declared himself a ‘sovereign citizen,’ he certainly shared those viewpoints.”
On Lacy’s computers, investigators found what they described as a “wish list” that included a reference to putting “mud on [a] license plate,” the statement said. Also on Lacy’s list were references to solar panels, water filters, sleeping bags and bulletproof vests. He also had visited a website describing how to make homemade explosives, it said.
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The Fall and Rise of Labour in the 21st Century: if it has got to start somewhere, it might as well start everywhere. And every hand helps.
And every step counts.
The slightest move.
It’s not too late for the American Labor Movement…
In the early years of the 20th century, blood was shed, heads were broken, bridges blown sideways and when the dust settled we had the 40 hour work week, decent pay and pensions. More…The American worker could as long as the robber barons were kept at bay, able to make a decent living. A couple of handy World Wars helped as well.
And then along came Ronnie…
But first there was Teddy Roosevelt and his Rough Riders; the mythic cowboy shot straight through the whites of American eyes, into the Dark Heart of the Yankee imagination and blasted its way out the other side as full-blown History.
The Cowboy as Savior of a nation wandering lost in the Wilderness works because cowboys are not about justice, human rights and the sovereignty of other countries: No.
Cowboys are about cows.
And the art of herding cows.
And eating cows.
And worshiping sacred cows.
And…Well, sumabitch…Looks like The Cowboy Way is just politics by another name.
Which brings us to Eugene, Oregon. Mainstream media mourns the sad lot of the Eugene Water & Electric Board. First they started losing money due to bad management decisions, for which they were well-paid. And then their workers decided to get organized. Because clearly, the guys at the top were no geniuses…
And the EWEB’s woes started rolling.
Labour unrest was unfamiliar to the men in suits who never went out at three in the morning to get the lights back on for thousands of rate-payers.
No. A hundred years and no union.
Of course, there had been talk.
Not the Talk is turning into Action.
The unionization drive comes after EWEB laid off 38 employees last year in order to trim costs in response to declining revenues — and it may cut a dozen more jobs this spring.
Some of EWEB’s 86,000 ratepayers are feeling pinched, too, because part of EWEB’s fix to its financial pickle was to raise rates.
Ratepayers have a stake in the outcome of the unionization efforts. But what that is depends on who you talk to. Mainstream media figures it might increase costs or reduce the quality of the electric and water service.
But people know that in the end, unions are good for everyone in the community.
Management usually isn’t part of the community it profits from,
So it goes.
And the Union rolls on.
As the Cowboys ride into the sunset.
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That's the petition. It won't save her life; proper medical atention, timely medical atention would have saved her life. But if this petition has any effect and she is released on compasionate grounds, then at least she wil be able to die among family and friends
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Oregon wants to play the Drone Card in its Wild Blue Yonder. Yes Cascadia cashes in on the Drone Rush, vying for those sweet federal dollars in exchange for a place to test drones.
But wait! There's more.or les: we stil don't have anything like laws regulating the use of these things. But we do have laws that alow Obama's 'Teror Tuesday' crew to put YOU on The List of targets for assassination.
The Money Shot: Drones have ben tested here for years, 'under the radar', so to speak.
But drones aside, there are scarier prospects out there: Example? Wel, you would Not want to be the famed civil rights lawyer, Lyne Stewart these days. She is serving 10 years in Carswel's Comunication Management Unit. And dying of cancer that was once treatablke but not now. It's fatal at this point, because prison ioficials denied her medicine or medical care that would otherwise have saved her life. SO DON'T JUST SIT THERE
SIGN THE PETITION
Lynne Stewart has devoted her life to the oppressed – a constant advocate for the countless many deprived in the United States of their freedom and their rights.
Unjustly charged and convicted for the “crime” of providing her client with a fearless defense, the prosecution of Lynne Stewart is an assault upon the basic freedoms of us all.
After years of post-conviction freedom, her bail was revoked arbitrarily and her imprisonment ordered, precluding surgery she had scheduled in a major New York hospital.
The sinister meaning of the relentless persecution of Lynne Stewart is unmistakably clear. Given her age and precarious health, the ten-year sentence she is serving is a virtual death sentence.
Since her imprisonment in the Federal Prison in Carswell, Texas her urgent need for surgery was delayed 18 months – so long, that the operating physician pronounced the condition as “the worst he had seen.”
Now, breast cancer, which had been in remission prior to her imprisonment, has reached Stage Four. It has appeared in her lymph nodes, on her shoulder, in her bones and her lungs.
Her daughter, a physician, has sounded the alarm: “Under the best of circumstances, Lynne would be in a battle of the most serious consequences with dangerous odds. With cancer and cancer treatment, the complications can be as debilitating and as dangerous as the cancer itself.”
In her current setting, where trips to physicians involve attempting to walk with 10 pounds of shackles on her wrists and ankles, with connecting chains, Lynne Stewart has lacked ready access to physicians and specialists under conditions compatible with medical success.
It can take weeks to see a medical provider in prison conditions. It can take weeks to report physical changes and learn the results of treatment; and when held in the hospital, Lynne has been shackled wrist and ankle to the bed.
This medieval “shackling” has little to do with any appropriate prison control. She is obviously not an escape risk.
We demand abolition of this practice for all prisoners, let alone those facing surgery and the urgent necessity of care and recovery.
It amounts to cruel and unusual punishment, in violation of human rights.
There is immediate remedy available for Lynne Stewart. Under the 1984 Sentencing Act, after a prisoner request, the Bureau of Prisons can file a motion with the Court to reduce sentences “for extraordinary and compelling reasons.” Life threatening illness is foremost among these and Lynne Stewart meets every rational and humane criterion for compassionate release.
To misconstrue the gravamen of this compassionate release by conditioning such upon being at death’s door – released, if at all, solely to die – is a cruel mockery converting a prison sentence, wholly undeserved, into a death sentence.
The New York Times, in an editorial (2/12), has excoriated the Bureau of Prisons for their restrictive crippling of this program. In a 20-year period, the Bureau released a scant 492 persons – an average of 24 a year out of a population that exceeds 220,000.
We cry out against the bureaucratic murder of Lynne Stewart.
We demand Lynne Stewart’s immediate release to receive urgent medical care in a supportive environment indispensable to the prospect of her survival and call upon the Bureau of Prisons to act immediately.
If Lynne’s original sentence of 28 months had not been unreasonably, punitively increased to 10 years, she would be home now — where her medical care would be by her choice and where those who love her best would care for her. Her isolation from this loving care would end.
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This past Monday, flying below the radar in more ways than one - the Federal Bureau of Investigation lost an appeal to delay a lawsuit filed by the Electronic Privacy Information Center. The privacy advocacy group is suing the agency for information related to its StingRay cellphone surveillance technology.
The name, ‘David Rigmaiden’ mean anything to you? How about ‘StingRay’?
This is the techogizmo that was used to apprehend David Rigmaiden. Granted, Rigmaiden is no boy scout. In 2008 he was a suspect in an electronic tax fraud ring. But it was Rigmaiden’s requests to provide details of how the FBI was able to locate him revealed the use of StingRay, a technology which fools cell phones within a certain range into linking with the technology., as though it was a real cell tower. By harvesting the data provided by a mass of cellphones, StingRay can physically locate a designated device.
Privacy advocates like the Electronic Frontier Foundation and the ACLU argue that StingRay's bulk data collection method violates the privacy of cell phone users who are unwittingly targeted by the tool. In addition, the ACLU has presented evidence that the FBI has not always been honest about its intent to deploy StingRay when filing warrants with federal judges.
If the ACLU’s lawsuit is successful, it would imply that the FBI has knowingly requested “general warrants,” which would violate Americans' Fourth Amendment rights against unreasonable search and seizure.
Which brings us to this: Today the Federal Aviation Administration hosts its first “online public engagement session” to allow the public to voice concerns over the threats to personal privacy posed by domestic drones.
Specifically, the FAA is soliciting comments on the privacy protocol it plans to implement at each of its six drone test sites, where the crafts will be put through a battery of tests before they’re allowed into U.S. airspace in 2015. The agency says public comments won’t drive policy but will help ensure that all voices are heard.
Says the FAA: “They are not intended to predetermine the long-term policy and regulatory framework under which commercial [drones] would operate…Rather, they aim to assure maximum transparency of privacy policies.”
The test site program is vital to the federal government’s plan to safely integrate commercial drones into the already crowded national airspace. More than 30 states, including Maryland and Virginia, have expressed interest in hosting a site.
The locations have yet to be chosen.
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Here's the email address that takes you to a great photo archive of photos and 'My Jihad' statements:
And the week went by on the usual clouds of gory detals: 'Stingray' cellphone tracking technology, Raiders of the 'No-Fly' List and, Why not? The Nobel Prize for Bradley Manning.
This week’s affront to the dignity and integrity of private individuals is ‘Sting Ray’. It’s a ‘Sting’ because the technology allows both the FBI and, in at least several documented cases, local law enforcement the capacity to filter through a large amount of…It’s a ‘Ray’ because: cellphone data in a given region and locate one specific signal - and thus a suspect.
What troubles privacy advocates is that such tools, in this case one sold under the Stingray brand, operate by fooling cellphones into believing that they are connecting to a cell tower, when in fact they are linking up to a surveillance tool. What’s more, the technology vacuums up data of not only a potential suspect, but all individuals within the given region.
For its part, the US government has argued that user privacy was upheld since authorities deleted all collected third-party data after its search.
The hearing set to begin in Arizona concerns the case of Daniel David Rigmaiden, a suspect in a tax fraud scheme, who was found at an apartment complex with the help of the Stingray technology.
Organizations such as the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) and the Electronic Frontier Foundation have an issue not only with how the technology works - which they say violates the Fourth Amendment’s protection against “general warrants” - but also the manner in which the FBI went about using it in Rigmaiden's and several others cases.
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